El conflicto socioterritorial de Santa María Ostula y la lucha entre territorialidades en el campo mexicano

El 29 de junio de 2009, la comu­ni­dad Nahua de Santa María Ostula –ubi­cada en el muni­ci­pio de Aquila, costa de Michoa­cán, México– recu­peró de manera pací­fica mil hec­tá­reas de tie­rras cos­te­ras per­te­ne­cien­tes a su terri­to­rio ances­tral, las cua­les están inclui­das y deli­mi­ta­das en sus Títu­los Virrei­na­les. Ahí, la comu­ni­dad fundó un nuevo poblado al que nom­bró San Diego Xaya­ka­lan (“el lugar de los dan­zan­tes con más­ca­ras” en len­gua Nahua). El día de la recu­pe­ra­ción, un grupo de narco-paramilitares los atacó con armas de grueso cali­bre. Según denun­cian los comu­ne­ros de Ostula, el grupo fue pagado y enviado por los pode­ro­sos gana­de­ros, caci­ques y nar­co­tra­fi­can­tes con quie­nes lle­van dis­pu­tán­dose la tie­rra desde hace ya 50 años. Dichos agre­so­res habi­tan en el poblado vecino de “La Placita”.

La comu­ni­dad de Ostula, cono­ce­dora del poder que osten­tan las per­so­nas con quie­nes se dispu­tan la tie­rra, se vie­ron en la nece­si­dad de reor­ga­ni­zar su guar­dia y poli­cía comu­ni­ta­ria para defenderse.

Localización de la comunidad de Santa María Ostula.

Loca­li­za­ción de la comu­ni­dad de Santa María Ostula.

Las tie­rras, en disputa, son codi­cia­das por los par­ti­cu­la­res de La Pla­cita, gru­pos del cri­men orga­ni­zado, el gobierno fede­ral, esta­tal y muni­ci­pal, la empresa minera Ternium-Hylsa y empre­sas hote­le­ras. Ahí era donde “el narco” tra­fi­caba droga y donde ente­rra­ban a sus enemi­gos eje­cu­ta­dos. Ade­más, ahí, el gobierno de Michoa­cán y empre­sas pri­va­das pre­ten­dían hacer un para­dor turís­tico y un pequeño puerto para sacar el mine­ral de hie­rro que se extrae de la mina “las Enci­nas”, pro­pie­dad de la tras­na­cio­nal Ternium-Hylsa y loca­li­zada en la cabe­cera muni­ci­pal de Aquila.

Desde el día de la recu­pe­ra­ción de las tie­rras hasta diciem­bre de 2015, la comu­ni­dad de Ostula cuenta a 34 de sus comu­ne­ros ase­si­na­dos y 5 des­a­pa­re­ci­dos (entre ellos Fran­cisco de Asís Manuel, pre­si­dente de los Bie­nes Comu­na­les de Ostula, des­a­pa­re­cido el 20 de abril de 2010), quie­nes habían defen­dido tanto sus tie­rras y terri­to­rios, cuanto su modo de vida comu­nal y su dere­cho a la auto­de­ter­mi­na­ción por la vía de la auto­no­mía. Todo ello hace que este con­flicto social tras­cienda de con­flicto agra­rio a uno de nuevo tipo.

El territorio de Ostula recuperado el 29 de junio de 2009 y que sigue en posesión de la comunidad de Ostula (relleno de cruces); Así como los linderos establecidos según el Título Virreinal (línea continua); el lindero según la ubicación real de la Resolución Presidencial de 27 de abril de 1964 (línea de guiones) y según el Plano de Ejecución del 14 de mayo de 1965 (línea punteada).

El terri­to­rio de Ostula recu­pe­rado el 29 de junio de 2009 y que sigue en pose­sión de la comu­ni­dad de Ostula (relleno de cru­ces); Los lin­de­ros esta­ble­ci­dos según el Título Virrei­nal (línea con­ti­nua); El lin­dero según la ubi­ca­ción real de la Reso­lu­ción Pre­si­den­cial de 27 de abril de 1964 (línea de guio­nes) y según el Plano de Eje­cu­ción del 14 de mayo de 1965 (línea punteada).

¿A qué res­ponde esta vio­len­cia?, ¿cómo expli­car este con­flicto desde la geo­gra­fía polí­tica y desde una geo­gra­fía crí­tica?, ¿cuál es el ori­gen pro­fundo de este con­flicto?, ¿qué pers­pec­ti­vas de solu­ción exis­ten?, ¿en qué con­texto del movi­miento indí­gena, cam­pe­sino y popu­lar en México se da la acción de la comu­ni­dad de Ostula?, ¿qué rela­ción tiene el con­flicto agra­rio de Ostula con el actual patrón de repro­duc­ción de capi­tal en México?, ¿qué tipo de con­flicto social esta­mos analizando?

La inves­ti­ga­ción cien­tí­fica pre­ten­dió cono­cer, com­pren­der y expli­car el con­flicto social en Santa María Ostula, en la costa Nahua de Michoa­cán, México. Desde la geo­gra­fía polí­tica, lo que apa­renta ser un con­flicto agra­rio en reali­dad es un con­flicto dife­rente, un con­flicto que deno­mino con­flicto socio­te­rri­to­rial y que no es excep­cio­nal de Ostula, sino que se vive y padece actual­mente, en otras regio­nes del campo mexi­cano. Un con­flicto actual con pro­fun­das raí­ces his­tó­ri­cas, que nece­sita ser ana­li­zado desde dife­ren­tes dimen­sio­nes para com­pren­der su com­ple­ji­dad, su mag­ni­tud, sus reper­cu­sio­nes y los retos que nos plan­tea. Retos que deben ser­vir para pen­sar y pro­po­ner dife­ren­tes cami­nos para recon­ci­liar y recons­truir un país y una socie­dad con un tejido social vul­ne­rado y frac­tu­rado por la vio­len­cia. Un país plu­ri­cul­tu­ral y una socie­dad diversa nece­si­ta­dos de un pro­ceso que renueve tanto al Estado y sus ins­ti­tu­cio­nes, como las for­mas de rela­ción entre Estado-sociedad. Un pro­ceso de recon­ci­lia­ción y recons­truc­ción que per­mita el dia­logo plu­ral para cons­ti­tuir un nuevo pacto social de convivencia.

Para mayor información:

DÍAZ CARNERO, Emi­li­ano. El con­flicto socio­te­rri­to­rial de Santa María Ostula y la lucha entre terri­to­ria­li­da­des en el campo mexi­cano. Tesis de doc­to­rado. Ciu­dad de México: Uni­ver­si­dad Nacio­nal Autó­noma de México, 2016. 220 p. [En Línea] <http://132.248.9.195/ptd2016/octubre/511014381/Index.html>.

Emi­li­ano Díaz Car­nero es Doc­tor en Geo­gra­fía por la UNAM. Pro­fe­sor inves­ti­ga­dor del Depar­ta­mento de Estu­dios Cul­tu­ra­les de El Cole­gio de la Fron­tera Norte y Fun­da­dor del Ins­ti­tuto de Geo­gra­fía para la paz A.C.

Ficha biblio­grá­fica:

DÍAZ CARNERO, Emi­li­ano. El con­flicto socio­te­rri­to­rial de Santa María Ostula y la lucha entre terri­to­ria­li­da­des en el campo mexi­cano. Geo­cri­tiQ. 25 de julio de 2018, nº 397. [ISSN: 2385–5096]. <http://www.geocritiq.com/2018/07/el-conflicto-socioterritorial-de-santa-maria-y-la-lucha-entre-territorialidades-en-el-campo-mexicano>.

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